Krzywe Tornquista

Krzywe Tornquista to wykresy pokazujące jak kształtują się zależności popytu na dobra podstawowe, wyższego rządu i luksusowe od dochodów konsumenta. Są niezwykle ważne przy planowaniu biznesowym, gdyż pokazują, kiedy i w jakim stopniu ludzie są skłonni kupować poszczególne produkty.

Dochód jest czynnikiem kształtującym popyt na wszystkie dobra. Jeśli nie ma dochodu, to nie ma zakupów, a jeśli dochód jest, to od jego wielkości zależy ile kupujemy. Zależy też jak kupujemy, czyli w jaki sposób rośnie ilość nabywanych towarów: czy wraz ze wzrostem dochodów kupujemy coraz więcej lub mniej różnych produktów. Wzrost dochodów powoduje też pojawienie się popytu na dobra coraz wyższego rzędu, ale nie jest to kwestia ani prosta ani oczywista.

Zależności między wielkością dochodów a rodzajem kupowanych dóbr pokazują m in. funkcje Tornquista:

  • I rodzaju – popyt na dobra podstawowe, pierwszej potrzeby.
  • II rodzaju – popyt na wyższego rzędu.
  • III rodzaju – popyt na dobra luksusowe.

krzywe tornquista

Z prawa Engla i funkcji Tornquista rządzących elastycznością dochodowej krzywej popytu wiemy, że na dobra podstawowe popyt jest nie elastyczny. Udział żywności w ogólnej puli wydatków zmniejsza się kiedy zarabiamy więcej, dążąc do wartości granicznej. Oznacza to, że nie zależnie od wielkości dochodów nie przekroczymy pewnej ilości chleba czy mleka jakie kupujemy (przynajmniej w granicach zdrowego rozsądku).

Podobna, acz nie identyczna sytuacja jest z dobrami wyższego rzędu. Wraz ze wzrostem naszych dochodów kupujemy ich więcej, a elastyczność tych zakupów jest mała i kształtuje się podobnie jak w przypadku dóbr podstawowych. Wyznaczona zostaje wartość graniczna popytu, której nie przekracza się mimo tego, że nasz dochód wzrasta.

I na koniec dobra luksusowe. Współczynnik dochodowej elastyczności popytu na nie jest większy od 1, zatem doskonale elastyczny. Oznacza, to że popyt na nie rośnie o wiele szybciej od wzrostu dochodów. Co więcej, popyt na takie dobra wydaje się praktycznie nieograniczony.

Dodatkowo trzeba zwrócić uwagę na moment, w którym powstaje popyt na poszczególne dobra w kontekście wielkości dochodów. I tak, popyt na dobra podstawowe kształtuje się od początku – nawet przy najniższym dochodzie istnieje konieczność ich kupowania. W przypadku dóbr wyższego rzędu popyt powstaje dopiero przy określonym poziomie dochodów, takim przy którym można już zaspokoić pewne potrzeby podstawowe. Dobra te nie są wobec siebie doskonale wymienne – nie można zrezygnować całkowicie z jedzenia na rzecz zakupu ubrań, nawet na pewien czas. Można natomiast przez pewien czas rezygnować z zakupu ubrań na rzecz zakupu jedzenia. Przy osiągnięciu kolejnego poziomu dochodów na arenie dóbr dostępnych pojawiają się produkty luksusowe i zmieniają się reguły gry.

Jakie praktyczne znaczenie dla managerów i marketingowców mają krzywe Tornquista? Pokazują zależności jakie trzeba uwzględnić przy wyborze grupy docelowej oraz strategii zarządzania produktami, w zależności od tego jakie dobra sprzedajemy. Jeśli sprzedajemy dobra podstawowe to musimy zdawać sobie sprawę, że nie możemy ich sprzedać nieograniczonej ilości, za to możemy komunikować się z klientem znajdującymi się na wszystkich, także niskich, poziomach dochodów. W przypadku dóbr wyższego rzędu i dóbr luksusowych sens ma tylko skierowanie oferty do osób i gospodarstw domowych powyżej pewnego, określonego w badaniach, poziomu dochodów. W sferze towarów luksusowych, powyżej tego poziomu, chęci zakupowe są zdecydowanie mocniejsze niż przyrost dochodów co oznacza, że ludzie są bardziej podatni na takie zakupy.

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